Setting file and directory permissions

About permissions | Changing permissions with chmod
Changing default permissions | Managing groups

Files and directories that you create have certain permissions by default.

To change the default settings so they apply to newly created files and directories, use the umask command.

Should you need to change those permissions for existing files or directories—to allow other users to modify or execute them, for example—follow the chmod examples below.

Experienced users may prefer to manage permissions using octal numbers rather than the methods described here.

"sudo" prohibited
Users are not allowed to execute the sudo command to act on other users' files on the GLADE system. Any such unauthorized attempts fail and are reported to CISL personnel, who will contact the user involved regarding proper use of the system.

About permissions

Files in a UNIX system have associated permissions that determine who can read (r)write (w), and execute (x) them.

Directory permissions use those same flags to indicate who can list files in a directory (r), create and remove files in the directory (w), or cd into or traverse (x) the directory. Carefully consider both the file permissions and the directory permissions to get the desired end result. For example, you can give a user read permission for a file, but the user won't have access to it without also having permission to traverse the directory tree that contains the file.

Three additional things to note regarding directory permissions:

  1. Users who have write permission for a directory can delete files in the directory without having write permission for those files.
  2. Subdirectories can have less restrictive permissions than their parent directories. However, if you change directory permissions recursively (see chmod below), you are changing them for all of the files and subdirectories in that directory tree.
  3. An alternative to changing permissions recursively is to set them selectively as shown in this example below.

To see who can work with your files and directories, log in and look at the output of an ls ‑l command.

Here is an example.

files and directories

The first column is a string of 10 permission flags.

The first flag indicates, for most directory contents, that what is listed is a file (-) or a directory (d).

The other nine flags, in groups of three, indicate:

- the user’s (owner’s) permissions   -rwxr-xr-x
- group members’ permissions   -rwxr-xr-x
- others’ permissions   -rwxr-xr-x

"Others" means everyone else who can log in on the machine.

Changing permissions with chmod

To modify the permission flags on existing files and directories, use the chmod command ("change mode"). It can be used for individual files or it can be run recursively with the "-R" option to change permissions for all of the subdirectories and files within a directory.

The chmod command specifies which class or classes (user, group, other) have access to the file or directory in various modes (read, write, execute).

  • Use the operators and - to add or remove selected permissions for a class without changing its other permissions.
  • Use to specify all of the permissions for a class at once. If a class is not explicitly mentioned, their permissions are unchanged, even if the operator is used for a different class.

Follow this format:

chmod [classes][operator][modes] filename


Add selected permissions for a group

Only the owner can read, write, and execute this file:

-rwx------ 1 username group     57 Apr 11 12:29 filename

Add group (g) permissions to read (r) and execute (x) like this:

chmod g+rx filename

The new file permissions are shown here:

-rwxr-x--- 1 username group     57 May 14 09:54 filename

Note that the permissions that were not specified were not changed: The user class permissions and other class permissions did not change, and the writing permission for the group class remains unchanged.

Specify all permissions for a group

To set permissions for a single class, such as group (g), use the = operator.

chmod g=rx filename

In this case, the only permissions affected were those for the specified class: group. The group can only read or execute the file, but not write. Permissions for the user class and other class were not changed because they were not specified.

Specify permissions for sets of classes

To set permissions for multiple classes with a single command, separate the class settings with a comma.

chmod u=rwx,g=rwx,o+rx filename

The new file permissions are shown here:

-rwxrwxr-x 1 username group     57 May 14 09:54 filename

Set permissions selectively

This example shows how to give your group access to all of the files and subdirectories in a directory but limit other users' access to specified files.

chmod -R u=rwx,g=rwx,o+x /glade/u/home/username/directory/
chmod u=rwx,g=rwx,o+rx /glade/u/home/username/directory/subdirectory/file1
chmod u=rwx,g=rwx,o+rx /glade/u/home/username/directory/subdirectory/file2

The result is that group members have all rights to files in the specified directories and subdirectories. Others have permission to traverse the directories as needed to read and execute two specified files.

Changing default permissions with umask

To change the default permissions that are set when you create a file or directory within a session or with a script, use the umask command.

The syntax is similar to that of chmod (above), but use the = operator to set the default permissions.


The umask examples shown here will give you and group members read, write, and execute permission. Others will have only read and execute permission.

bash users

umask u=rwx,g=rwx,o=rx

tcsh users

umask 002

Managing groups

Several additional commands are useful for managing groups to control who can access files and directories. For example, you can limit access to users who share your core-hour or storage allocation.

Say you don't want all members of the ncar group to have group permissions to read, write, and execute certain files. You should have a UNIX group that corresponds to your project code—such as group uabc0001 for project code UABC0001. You can use the commands below to set or change group ownership of certain files and directories so only members of that group have permission to access them.

If there is no group that allows you to share as needed with other users who have NCAR user accounts, you can request creation of a custom group by contacting the CISL Help Desk.

To share with colleagues who do not have NCAR user accounts, consider using the NCAR Data Sharing Service.

Identifying current group and others - id

Files or directories that you create or edit become associated with your current UNIX group. Usually, that is your default primary group unless you change groups after you log in. (See "Changing current group" below.)

If you aren't sure what your current group is, or which other groups you belong to, you can find out by running the id command after you log in. It will return your user ID (uid) and your current group (gid), and it will list any other groups with which you are associated.


uid=12345(jsmith) gid=1000(ncar) groups=1000(ncar),54321(cisl)

Changing current group - sg

To change from one group to another during a login session, follow this example using the sg command and the name of the new group.

sg new_groupname

The command will start a new shell with your new current group ID in effect. When you exit that shell, you change back to your previously used group ID.

Some users prefer newgrp over sg for this, but sg has the advantage of retaining your existing user environment while changing your current group.

Changing default group

To change your default primary group—the group that will be in effect each time you subsequently log in—use the Systems Accounting Manager (SAM). Changes made in SAM typically take effect the next business day.

Changing group ownership of a file or directory - chgrp

Use chgrp as shown here to change ownership of a file or directory to a different group.

chgrp new_groupname filename
chgrp new_groupname directory

To change group ownership of a directory and all of the files and subdirectories in that directory, use chgrp recursively.

chgrp -R new_group directory